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The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and the example of the first Atlantic Revolutions generated criticism of the absolutist monarchy that ruled the country.As in the rest of Spanish America, the overthrow of Ferdinand VII during the Peninsular War created great concern.Argentina (masculine argentino) means in Italian "(made) of silver, silver coloured", probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine "(made) of silver" The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in (same construction as Old French acerin "(made) of steel", from acier "steel" -in or sapin "(made) of fir wood", from OF sap "fir" -in).
The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto.
Starting with Julio Argentino Roca in 1880, ten consecutive federal governments emphasized liberal economic policies.
The massive wave of European immigration they promoted—second only to the United States'—led to a near-reinvention of Argentine society and economy that by 1908 had placed the country as the seventh wealthiest from 1870 to 1910 Argentina's wheat exports went from 100,000 to 2,500,000 t (110,000 to 2,760,000 short tons) per year, while frozen beef exports increased from 25,000 to 365,000 t (28,000 to 402,000 short tons) per year, In 1865, Argentina was already one of the top 25 nations by per capita income.
With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776.
The declaration and fight for independence (1810–1818) was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city.